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How exactly is all thermal energy transferred from one place to another? If you recall Brandon Belt Jersey , in the previous chapter we explained the changes that occur when thermal energy is transferred from one place to another. However, we did not go into detail on how exactly the energy transfer actually happens. Chapter 11 will go into further detail and look at the three transfer processes- convection, conduction, and radiation-absorption- in greater detail.
Convection describes the transfer of thermal energy in liquids and gases. The most used method of transferring thermal energy is to heat a substance and then in turn allow the substance to move, therefore carrying the thermal energy to a new location. This is called convection. Convection is used in our everyday lives without us even realizing; steam from a tea kettle Hunter Pence Jersey , hot exhaust fumes from cars, and even smoke from fires all carry thermal energy from one place and disperse it to another. As stated before, this process relies on two characteristics of liquids and gases. One is that they must flow, carrying thermal energy with them, and the other is that warmed liquids and gasses must rise in their cooler surroundings.
Since warm air rises Barry Bonds Jersey , it is able to transfer thermal energy from one energy source to another. Convection is known as the process of transferring thermal energy by the movement of warm liquids and gasses to cooler surroundings. A perfect example to better understand convection is to think of a radiator in a closed room. With the radiator acting as the energy source, the air near the radiator is warmed and soon rises, as it moves upward, the air interacts with outside things such as the walls and the furniture. Its molecules collide with these things and with each collision; the thermal energy is transferred from the warmer air to the cooler surroundings. In no time, the air will cool Willie Mays Jersey , sink, and then will be drawn back to the radiator. This process repeats over and over until the radiator is turned off.
Conduction describes the transferring process of energy through solid substances. There is no specific motion in which a material’s molecules is carried away from their original location, but you could probably better understand it using this example: when a pan is being heated on the stove it is only touching the bottom of the pan, however, if the pan handle is metal San Francisco Giants Jersey , it quickly becomes too hot to touch. This occurs simply because of conduction.
The effects of the many factors of conduction can be combined into one single equation called the thermal conduction equation. This equation can be used to determine the amount of thermal energy conducted through a material. The thermal conduction equation is:
Thermal energy conducted= (Cross-sectional area) X (time) X (Temperature difference)
The final way thermal energy can be transferred is through radiation and absorption. Radiation-absorption is the process by which thermal energy is transferred through empty space and by electromagnetic waves. A thermal energy source, such as the sun, converts thermal energy into electromagnetic waves. These waves soon travel to an energy receiver, which convert the electromagnetic wave energy back into thermal energy. The energy source is said to “radiate” the energy and the energy receiver is said to “absorb” it. A perfect example of how this happens is one about a bike seat and a hot sunny day. You leave your bike parked outside for a while in the blazing sun and you come back to ride it home and cannot sit on the seat because of how hot it is. This example shows that your bike seat gained thermal energy from the sun. Radiation-absorption is one of the ways in which objects exchange thermal energy with their surroundings. All objects radiate and absorb thermal energy. If they radiate more energy than they can absorb, the cooler the object becomes.
In conclusion Eric Hosmer Jersey , thermal energy can be transferred from one location to another by three different processes: convection, conduction, and radiation-absorption.
<"http:web.phys.ksu.edufascinationChapter11.pdf> Click here for more information A sleep lab patient, Pasadena resident William H. Chapman, was tested after his wife wrote his doctor to express concern about his restless sleep. Chapman Cory Spangenberg Jersey , 61, has been a heavy snorer for decades.
"The descriptions of my snoring went from something like a growling bear to a machine that was going to knock down the house," he said. When he and his son went camping in southern Utah last year, his son asked him to sleep in the truck.
He felt bone-tired during the day, what he describes as "30 years struggling against this weariness that you feel perpetually. No alertness. No get-up-and-go."
Finally Wil Myers Jersey , Chapman spent a night at Torrance Memorial, plugged into the polysomnograph. The test results were startling: He was holding his breath as many as 57 times an hour, each time for 10 to 40 seconds. He would wake repeatedly as he held his breath, meaning that he unknowingly was sleeping only four or five hours a night.
A federal report concluded that while 60 million Americans suffer from apnea, narcolepsy and other chronic sleep problems Rollie Fingers Jersey , the majority are undiagnosed and untreated. Despite its pervasiveness and impact upon the society, sleep-related problems are not recognized as a public health issue.
The most common and severe form, called obstructive sleep apnea, features extremely loud snoring interrupted by pauses and gasps. Breathing stops for 10 seconds or longer, sometimes dozens or even hundreds of times each night.
Most frequently Dave Winfield Jersey , the airway becomes blocked during sleep due to excessive relaxation of throat muscles. In children, sleep apnea is often the result of enlarged tonsils and adenoids.
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